The sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells controls organ size and plasticity. Nature 2016, 530:344-348.

報告日期: 2017/11/21
報告時間: 16:00/16:50
報告學生: 張哲維
講評老師: 黃步敏

The sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells

controls organ size and plasticity

Nature 530, 344–348 (18 February 2016)

Bruno Hudry, Sanjay Khadayate & Irene Miguel-Aliaga

Speaker: Che-Wei Chang/張哲維(Adviser: Dr. Shian-Jang Yan/顏賢章)

Commentator: Dr. Bu-Miin Huang/黃步敏

Time and date: 2017/11/21 16:00~16:50

The sex differences of species control numerous biological phenomena including physiological and developmental pathways. Since sex differences also play critical role in disease susceptibility, most of the studies focus on hormonal factor distribution, yet the role of cell-intrinsic mechanism still remains poorly unknown. The sex determined pathway of Drosophila melanogaster depends on the ratio of sex chromosome and somatic chromosomes, and then downstream sex specific pathway will be turned on or off in specific sex. Interestingly, previous studies have shown that the sex-bias of fruit-fly midguts which female Drosophila tend to have longer guts than male [1]. The preliminary results suggest that there may be sex specificity in somatic cells of flies. The authors used Drosophila intestine as in vivo model to investigate the cellular sex specificity role in somatic cells. First, they discovered intestinal epithelium of adult flies is a cellular mosaic system with different sex differentiation pathways. Then, the expression of sex difference genes controls the growth and cell division pattern in different sexes. Nevertheless, authors suggested that the sex differences in intestinal stem cell behavior is due to sex differentiation pathway of transformer (tra). The authors demonstrated that rdo, Idgf1 and Spn88Eb, the downstream target genes of tra, play critical roles in midgut stem cell sexual identity. They further indicated the sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells play the key role in controlling midgut size, plasticity of reproduction, and even response to genetically induced tumours. Overall, the group suggests a model that the growth and differentiation of somatic cells can be reversibly manipulated through changing specific site regarding sexual identity. The new mechanism of sex differences may play critical role in other tissue or even in disease patterns.

Keywords:sex differences, Drosophila melanogaster, transformer (tra), intestinal stem cells, sex determination pathway

Reference:[1]Cognigni P, Bailey AP, Miguel-Aliaga I. Enteric neurons and systemic signals couple nutritional and reproductive status with intestinal homeostasis. Cell Metab. 13, 92–104 (2011).